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Top 90 Selenium Interview Questions & Answers

Top 90 Selenium Interview Questions & Answers

Selenium Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers and Experienced – Part -1

Selenium Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers and Experienced – Part -2

Selenium Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers and Experienced – Part -3

Selenium Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers and Experienced – Part -4

Selenium Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers and Experienced – Part -5

1. What is Automation Testing?
Automation testing is the process of testing the software using an automation tool to find the defects. In this process, executing the test scripts and generating the results are performed automatically by automation tools. Some most popular tools to do automation testing are HP QTP/UFT, Selenium WebDriver, etc.,
2. What are the benefits of Automation Testing?
·       Saves time and money. Automation testing is faster in execution.
·       Reusability of code. Create one time and execute multiple times with less or no maintenance.
·       Easy reporting. It generates automatic reports after test execution.
·       Easy for compatibility testing. It enables parallel execution in the combination of different OS and browser environments.
·       Low-cost maintenance. It is cheaper compared to manual testing in a long run.
·       Automated testing is more reliable.
·       Automated testing is more powerful and versatile.
·       It is mostly used for regression testing. Supports execution of repeated test cases.
·       Minimal manual intervention. Test scripts can be run unattended.
·       Maximum coverage. It helps to increase the test coverage.
3. What type of tests have you automated?
Our main focus is to automate test cases to do Regression testing, Smoke testing, and Sanity testing. Sometimes based on the project and the test time estimation, we do focus on End to End testing.
4. How many test cases you have automated per day?
It depends on Test case scenario complexity and length. I did automate 2-5 test scenarios per day when the complexity is limited. Sometimes just 1 or fewer test scenarios in a day when the complexity is high.
5. What is a Framework?
A framework defines a set of rules or best practices which we can follow in a systematic way to achieve the desired results. There are different types of automation frameworks and the most common ones are:
   Data Driven Testing Framework
   Keyword Driven Testing Framework
   Hybrid Testing Framework
6. Have you created any Framework?
If you are a beginner: No, I didn’t get a chance to create a framework. I have used the framework which is already available.
If you are an experienced tester: Yes, I have created a framework.  Or I have involved in the creation of the framework.
7. Can you explain the Framework which you have used in your Selenium Project?
Here we have clearly explained each component of Framework.
8. Why do you prefer Selenium Automation Tool?
·       Free and open source
·       Have large user base and helping communities
·       Cross browser compatibility
·       Platform compatibility
·       Multiple programming languages support
9. What is Selenium?
Selenium is an open source (free) automated testing suite to test web applications. It supports different platforms and browsers. It has gained a lot of popularity in terms of web-based automated testing and giving a great competition to the famous commercial tool HP QTP (Quick Test Professional) AKA HP UFT (Unified Functional Testing).
Selenium is a set of different software tools. Each tool has a different approach in supporting web based automation testing.
It has four components namely,
i     Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment)
ii    Selenium RC (Remote Control) – selenium 1
iii   Selenium WebDriver – selenium 2 & 3
iv  Selenium Grid
10. What is Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is a Firefox plugin. It is the simplest framework in the Selenium Suite. It allows us to record and playback the scripts. Even though we can create scripts using Selenium IDE, we need to use Selenium RC or Selenium WebDriver to write more advanced and robust test cases.
11. What is Selenese?
Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.
12. Which is the only browser that supports Selenium IDE to be used?
13. What is Selenium RC?
Selenium RC AKA Selenium 1. Selenium RC was the main Selenium project for a long time before the WebDriver merge brought up Selenium 2. Selenium 1 is still actively supported (in maintenance mode). It relies on JavaScript for automation. It supports Java, Javascript, Ruby, PHP, Python, Perl and C#. It supports almost every browser out there.
14. What is Selenium WebDriver?
Selenium WebDriver AKA Selenium 2 is a browser automation framework that accepts commands and sends them to a browser. It is implemented through a browser-specific driver. It controls the browser by directly communicating with it. Selenium WebDriver supports Java, C#, PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby.
15. What is Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid is a tool used together with Selenium RC to run tests on different machines against different browsers in parallel. That is, running multiple tests at the same time against different machines running different browsers and operating systems.
In simple words, it is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.
16. When do you use Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution
17. What are the advantages of Selenium Grid?
It allows running test cases in parallel thereby saving test execution time.
It allows multi-browser testing
It allows us to execute test cases on multi-platform
18. What is a hub in Selenium Grid?
A hub is a server or a central point that controls the test executions on different machines.
19. What is a node in Selenium Grid?
Node is the machine which is attached to the hub. There can be multiple nodes in Selenium Grid.
20. What are the types of WebDriver APIs available in Selenium?
   Firefox Driver
   Gecko Driver
   InternetExplorer Driver
   Chrome Driver
   HTMLUNIT Driver
   Opera Driver
   Safari Driver
   Android Driver
   iPhone Driver
21. Which WebDriver implementation claims to be the fastest?
The fastest implementation of WebDriver is the HTMLUnitDriver. It is because the HTMLUnitDriver does not execute tests in the browser.
22. What are the Programming Languages supported by Selenium WebDiver?
23. What are the Operating Systems supported by Selenium WebDriver?
24. What are the Open-source Frameworks supported by Selenium WebDriver?
25. What are the Locators available in Selenium?
Different types of locators are:
1   ID –  
2   ClassName –  
3   Name –  
4   TagName –  
5   LinkText –  
6   PartialLinkText –  
7   XPath –  
8   CSS Selector –  
26. What is a XPath?
XPath is used to locate the elements. Using XPath, we could navigate through elements and attributes in an XML document to locate web elements such as textbox, button, checkbox, Image etc., in a web page.
27. What is the difference between “/” and “//” 
Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create XPath with absolute path i.e. the XPath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node
Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create XPath with relative path i.e. the XPath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.
28. What is the difference between Absolute Path and Relative Path?
Absolute XPath starts from the root node and ends with desired descendant element’s node. It starts with top HTML node and ends with input node. It starts with a single forward slash(/) as shown below.
Relative XPath starts from any node in between the HTML page to the current element’s node(last node of the element). It starts with a single forward slash(//) as shown below.

29. What is the difference between Assert and Verify in Selenium?
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
instead of creating
FirefoxDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
driver.findElement(By.linkText(Software Testing Material Website”)).click();
3  1
4   boolean elePresent = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”)).isDisplayed();
3  1
4   boolean eleSelected= driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”)).isSelected();
3  1
4   boolean eleEnabled= driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”)).isEnabled();
Assert: In simple words, if the assert condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution will stop and further test step will not be executed.
Verify: In simple words, there won’t be any halt in the test execution even though the verify condition is true or false.
For detailed post check the below link.
30. What are Soft Assert and Hard Assert in Selenium?
Soft Assert: Soft Assert collects errors during @Test Soft Assert does not throw an exception when an assert fails and would continue with the next step after the assert statement
Hard Assert: Hard Assert throws an AssertException immediately when an assert statement fails and test suite continues with next @Test
31. What are the verification points available in Selenium?
In Selenium IDE, we use Selenese Verify and Assert Commands as Verification points
In Selenium WebDriver, there is no built-in features for verification points. It totally depends on our coding style. some of the Verification points are
To check for page title
To check for certain text
To check for certain element (text box, button, drop down, etc.)
32. How to launch a browser using Selenium WebDriver?
WebDriver is an Interface. We create Object of a WebDriver Interface.
<2.53 – no geckodriver
3.x – geckodriver for FF
To launch Firefox Driver:WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 
To launch Chrome Driver:WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
To launch Internet Explorer Driver:WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
33. Is the FirefoxDriver a Class or an Interface? 
FirefoxDriver is a Java class, and it implements the WebDriver interface.
34. What is the super interface of WebDriver?
35. Explain the line of code Webdriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); ?
 ‘WebDriver‘ is an interface and we are creating an object reference of type WebDriver instantiating an object of FirefoxDriver class.
36. We do create a reference variable ‘driver’ of type WebDriver
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
instead of creating
FirefoxDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
What is the purpose of doing this way?
f we create a reference variable driver of type WebDriver then we could use the same driver variable to work with any browser of our choice such as IEDriver, SafariDriver etc.,
//FirefoxDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
37. What are the different exceptions you have faced in Selenium WebDriver?
38. How To Login Into Any Site If It Is Showing Any Authentication Pop-Up For Username And Password?
To do this we pass username and password with the URL
39. What are the types of waits available in Selenium WebDriver?
In Selenium we could see three types of waits such as Implicit Waits, Explicit Waits and Fluent Waits.
   Implicit Waits –  
   Explicit Waits –  
   Fluent Waits –  
   Thread.sleep() – static wait
40. What is Implicit Wait In Selenium WebDriver?
Implicit waits tell to the WebDriver to wait for a certain amount of time before it throws an exception. Once we set the time, WebDriver will wait for the element based on the time we set before it throws an exception. The default setting is 0 (zero). We need to set some wait time to make WebDriver to wait for the required time.
41. What is WebDriver Wait In Selenium WebDriver?
WebDriverWait is applied on a certain element with defined expected condition and time. This wait is only applied to the specified element. This wait can also throw an exception when an element is not found.
42. What is Fluent Wait In Selenium WebDriver?
FluentWait can define the maximum amount of time to wait for a specific condition and frequency with which to check the condition before throwing an “ElementNotVisibleException” exception.
43. How to input text in the text box using Selenium WebDriver?
By using sendKeys() method
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
44. How to input text in the text box without calling the sendKeys()?
// To initialize js object
JavascriptExecutor JS = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;
// To enter username
45. How to clear the text in the text box using Selenium WebDriver?
By using clear() method
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath_of_element1”)).sendKeys(“Software Testing Material Website”);
46. How to get a text of a web element?
By using getText() method
47. How to get an attribute value using Selenium WebDriver?
By using getAttribute(value);
48. How to click on a hyperlink using Selenium WebDriver?
We use click() method in Selenium to click on the hyperlink
driver.findElement(By.linkText(“Software Testing Material Website”)).click();
49. How to submit a form using Selenium WebDriver?
We use “submit” method on element to submit a form
Alternatively, you can use click method on the element which does form submission
50. How to press ENTER key on text box In Selenium WebDriver?
To press ENTER key using Selenium WebDriver, We need to use Selenium Enum Keys with its constant ENTER.
51. How to pause a test execution for 5 seconds at a specific point?
By using java.lang.Thread.sleep(long milliseconds) method we could pause the execution for a specific time. To pause 5 seconds, we need to pass parameter as 5000 (5 seconds)
52. Is Selenium Server needed to run Selenium WebDriver Scripts?
When we are distributing our Selenium WebDriver scripts to execute using Selenium Grid, we need to use Selenium Server.
53. What happens if I run this command. driver.get(“www.softwaretestingmaterial.com”) ;
An exception is thrown. We need to pass HTTP protocol within driver.get() method.
54. What is the alternative to driver.get() method to open an URL using Selenium WebDriver?
Alternative method to driver.get(“url”) method is driver.navigate.to(“url”)
55. What is the difference between driver.get() and driver.navigate.to(“url”)?
driver.get(): To open an URL and it will wait till the whole page gets loaded
driver.navigate.get(): To navigate to an URL and It will not wait till the whole page gets loaded
56. Can I navigate back and forth in a browser in Selenium WebDriver?
We use Navigate interface to do navigate back and forth in a browser. It has methods to move back, forward as well as to refresh a page.
driver.navigate().forward(); – to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history
driver.navigate().back(); – takes back to the previous webpage with reference to the browser’s history
driver.navigate().refresh(); – to refresh the current web page thereby reloading all the web elements
driver.navigate().to(“url”); – to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL
57. What are the different types of navigation commands?
Refer above question (Can I navigate back and forth in a browser)
58. How to fetch the current page URL in Selenium?
To fetch the current page URL, we use getCurrentURL()
59. How can we maximize browser window in Selenium?
To maximize browser window in selenium we use maximize() method. This method maximizes the current window if it is not already maximized
60. How to delete cookies in Selenium?
To delete cookies we use deleteAllCookies() method
61. What are the ways to refresh a browser using Selenium WebDriver?
There are multiple ways to refresh a page in selenium
   Using driver.navigate().refresh() command as mentioned in the question 45
   Using driver.get(“URL”) on the current URL or using driver.getCurrentUrl()
   Using driver.navigate().to(“URL”) on the current URL or driver.navigate().to(driver.getCurrentUrl());
   Using sendKeys(Keys.F5) on any textbox on the webpage
62. What is the difference between driver.getWindowHandle() and driver.getWindowHandles() in Selenium WebDriver?
driver.getWindowHandle() – It returns a handle of the current page (a unique identifier)
driver.getWindowHandles() – It returns a set of handles of the all the pages available.
63. What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit() methods?
Purpose of these two methods (driver.close and driver.quit) is almost same. Both allow us to close a browser but still, there is a difference.
driver.close(): To close current WebDriver instance
driver.quit(): To close all the opened WebDriver instances
64. What is the difference between driver.findElement() and driver.findElements() commands?
The difference between driver.findElement() and driver.findElements() commands is-
   findElement() returns a single WebElement (found first) based on the locator passed as parameter. Whereas findElements() returns a list of WebElements, all satisfying the locator value passed.
   Syntax of findElement()-
   WebElement textbox = driver.findElement(By.id(“textBoxLocator”));
   Syntax of findElements()-
   List <WebElement> elements = element.findElements(By.id(“value”));
   Another difference between the two is- if no element is found then findElement() throws NoSuchElementException whereas findElements() returns a list of 0 elements.
List<WebElement> list = driver.findElements(By.tagName(“a”));
Sop(list.size()); ==40
65. How to find whether an element is displayed on the web page? 
WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.
1   isDisplayed()
2   boolean elePresent = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”)).isDisplayed();
1   isSelected()
2   boolean eleSelected= driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”)).isSelected();
1   isEnabled()
2   boolean eleEnabled= driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”)).isEnabled();
66. How to select a value in a dropdown?
By using Select class
WebElement mySelectElement = driver.findElement(By.name(“dropdown”));
Select dropdown = new Select(mySelectElement);
67. How to capture Screenshot in Selenium WebDriver?
By using TakesScreenshot Interface
In Selenium 3, we may face few issues while capturing Screenshots. To overcome we use aShot utility. Click on below links to see posts related to the normal way of capturing a screenshot and capturing a screenshot using aShot utility.
68. How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?
By using Actions class
WebElement ele = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”));
//Create object ‘action’ of an Actions class
Actions action = new Actions(driver);
//Mouseover on an element
69. How can we handle web based pop-up?
To handle alerts popups we need to do switch to the alert window and call Selenium WebDriver Alert API methods.
70. How can we handle windows based pop up?
Selenium doesn’t support windows based applications. It is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. We could handle windows based popups in Selenium using some third party tools such as AutoIT, SIKULI, Robot class etc.
71. How to handle hidden elements in Selenium WebDriver?
It is one of the most important selenium interview questions.
We can handle hidden elements by using javaScript executor
72. How can you find Broken Links in a page using Selenium WebDriver?
73. How to find more than one web element in the list?
// To store the list
List <WebElement> eleList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“xpath”));
// To fetch the size of the list
int listSize = eleList.size();
//for loop
for (int i=0; i<listSize; i++)
                  // Clicking on each link
                  // Navigating back to the previous page that stores the links
74. How to read a JavaScript variable in Selenium WebDriver?
By using JavascriptExecutor
// To initialize the JS object.
JavascriptExecutor JS = (JavascriptExecutor) webdriver;
// To get the site title.
String title = (String)JS.executeScript(“return document.title”);
System.out.println(“Title of the webpage : ” + title);
75. How do you read test data from excels?
Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API. POI API has many advantages than JXL.
76. Is it possible to automate the captcha using Selenium?
No, It’s not possible to automate captcha and bar code reader.
77. List some scenarios which we cannot automate using Selenium WebDriver?
1. Bitmap comparison Is not possible using Selenium WebDriver
2. Automating Captcha is not possible using Selenium WebDriver
3. We can not read bar code using Selenium WebDriver
4. windows OS based pop ups
5. third party calendars/element
6. Image
7. Word/PDF
78. What is Object Repository in Selenium WebDriver?
Object Repository is used to store element locator values in a centralized location instead of hard coding them within the scripts. We do create a property file (.properties) to store all the element locators and these property files act as an object repository in Selenium WebDriver.
79. How can you use the Recovery Scenario in Selenium WebDriver?
By using “Try Catch Block” within Selenium WebDriver Java tests.
try {
}catch(Exception e){
80. How to Upload a file in Selenium WebDriver?
There are two cases which are majorly used to upload a file in Selenium WebDriver such as using SendKeys Method and using AutoIT Script.
Browser Button – type =“file”
SendKeys (c:\test\naveen.jpg);
81. How to Download a file in Selenium WebDriver?
By using AutoIT script, we could download a file in Selenium WebDriver.
82. How to run Selenium WebDriver Test from the command line?
Class A{
cd c
c: javac A.java
c: java A.java
java org.testng.TestNG C:Users Desktop workspacetestingtestng.xml
83. How to switch between frames in Selenium?
By using the following code, we could switch between frames.
84. How to connect a Database in selenium?
As we all know Selenium WebDriver is a tool to automate User Interface. We could only interact with Browser using Selenium WebDriver.
We use JDBC Driver to connect the Database in Selenium (While using Java Programming Language).
85. How To Resize Browser Window Using Selenium WebDriver?
To resize the browser window to particular dimensions, we use ‘Dimension’ class to resize the browser window.
        //Create object of Dimensions class
        Dimension d = new Dimension(480,620);
        //Resize the current window to the given dimension
86. How To Scroll Web Page Down Or UP Using Selenium WebDriver?
JavaScript scrollBy() method scrolls the document by the specified number of pixels.
87. How To Perform Right Click Action (Context Click) In Selenium WebDriver?
We use Actions class in Selenium WebDriver to do Right-Click (Context Click) action.
88. How To Perform Double Click Action In Selenium WebDriver?
We use Actions class to do Double click action in selenium.
89. How To Perform Drag And Drop Action in Selenium WebDriver?
We use Actions class to do Drag And Drop Action
90. How To Highlight Element Using Selenium WebDriver?
By using JavascriptExecutor interface, we could highlight the specified element
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  15. sreenath

    Try again

    I have a span like this on accounts.google.com page. How to identify this element using cssselector based on the text ‘Try again’ . I tried using css=span:contains(‘Try again’) . This does not work.
    Any thoughts ? Thanks.

  16. sreenath

    Try again

    I have a span like this on accounts.google.com page. How to identify this element using cssselector based on the text ‘Try again’ . I tried using css=span:contains(‘Try again’) . This does not work.
    Any thoughts ? Thanks.

  17. Meera

    Great interview questions and answers list for Selenium developer. Good try

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